Dr Chandrasegaram performs a number of diagnostic procedures these are:

  • Colonoscopy
  • Endoscopy


Colonoscopy is an endoscopic procedure used to view the large intestine (colon and rectum) using an instrument called colonoscope (a flexible tube with a small camera and lens attached at one end).

The procedure can detect inflamed tissue, ulcers, and abnormal growths. It is used to diagnose colorectal cancer, bowel disorders, abdominal pain, inflamed tissue, ulcers, and anal bleeding.

Colonoscopy is performed usually with sedation by an anaesthetist The colonoscope is inserted into the bottom end of the anal canal which gently moves up through the rectum and then colon until it reaches the caecum (junction of small and large intestine).

The colonoscope is then withdrawn slowly as the camera shows pictures of the colon and rectum on a large screen. Polyps or growths can also be removed by colonoscopy which can be sent later for detection of cancer.

Instructions for colonoscopy

Dr Chandrasegaram will provide you written instructions and also will communicate on how to get prepared for the colonoscopy procedure. The process is called bowel preparation.

Gastrointestinal (GI) tract should be devoid of solid food; a strict liquid diet should be followed for 1 to 3 days before the procedure and will required bowel cleansing with bowel preparation medications. Patients should not drink beverages containing red or purple dye.

Certain medications such as aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen or other blood thinning medications, iron- containing preparations should be stopped before the test. Iron medications produce a dark black stool, and this makes the view inside the bowel less clear.

A laxative or an enema may be required the night before colonoscopy. Laxatives loosen the stools and increase bowel movement. Laxatives are usually swallowed in pill form or as a powder dissolved in water.  Driving is not permitted for 12 hours after colonoscopy.


Endoscopy involves the use of a flexible tube to examine the upper intestinal tract including the oesophagus, stomach and duodenum. The procedure is commonly undertaken if your doctor suspects that you have a problem of the oesophagus, stomach or duodenum eg an ulcer, cancer, inflammation or other abnormality.

Assessment for Coeliac disease which will include a small bowel biopsy can also be undertaken.


  • Difficulty or pain when swallowing
  • G.I. bleeding- hematemesis, melena, or iron-deficiency anaemia
  • Troublesome heartburn
  • Persistent ulcer-like pain
  • Dyspepsia
  • Anorexia or weight loss
  • Taking aspirin or NSAIDs
  • History of gastric ulcer
  • Persistent nausea, vomiting, or symptoms suggestive of pyloric obstruction
  • Gastric ulcer demonstrated by barium meal
  • Duodenal biopsy for suspected malabsorption

Upper GI endoscopy is usually performed on an outpatient basis. The endoscope is a long, thin, flexible tube with a tiny video camera and light at the end. By adjusting the various controls on the endoscope, the endoscopist can safely guide the instrument to carefully examine the inside lining of the upper digestive system. The high quality picture from the endoscope is shown on a TV monitor which gives a clear, detailed view.